Today in Samos, 2,450 viticulturists, cultivate 15.5 km2 vineyards, from which only 0,5 km2, 2.6% are located in the southern part and the rest of 15.0 km2 , 97.4% in the north and the mountains.
The average annual production of grapes amounts to 8.014 tonnes, from which 7,861 tonnes (98.1%) Samos muscat, 117 tonnes (1.5%) and Fokiano & Ritino and rest 36 tonnes (0.4%) various other varieties.
The vine of Samos, did not have competitors and is a completely specialized cultivation for the Island. The values is very satisfactory for the growers and contribute to the expansion of the crop, especially in the western regions, in villages around the Karlovassi.
The wines of Samos, from grapes of the variety “Samos white Muscat”, is Protected Designation of Origin PDO, since 1970 with code ΣΜ.More about Viticulture at Samos top
In Samos cultivated 115 km2 olive trees, in the southern part of the island is cultivated 66%, and in the north of the remaining 34%.
The average production of olive oil at the last 18 years (1998 – 2016) amounts to 2,352 tonnes, with maximum 4,042 tonnes at the period 1998-1999 and minimum 379 tonnes in 2001-2002.
The Samos olive oil, it’s “Protected Geographical Indication” (PGI), since 1993 (371572/19 07 93 Official Gazette 574/02 08 93) in accordance with EC directives number 510/06.More about olive cultivation at Samos top
Citrus fruits are an old cultivation of Samos island. Oldest, citrus gave good income, because in Istanbul, Izmir, in other cities of Asia Minor, and the ports of the Black Sea, was sold by the piece, as a drug and that was the motivation of the crop development at the islands of eastern Aegean.
Still there are some fenced orchards, such in Samos, Karlovasi in Marathokambos, Kokkari and in many other villages, with low altitude and a lot of water, but today systematically cultivated at the Milli village region.top
Fruits and vegetables cultivation
Fruits and vegetables are found everywhere, but systematically grown in mountainous areas of the northern part of the island, where the humidity and temperature conditions are favorable and there is plenty of irrigation water.top
Cultivations that disappeared
Tobacco (Nicotinna tabacum)
The systematic cultivation was introduced in the mid-1890s to recuperate financially Samians farmers who had lost their income from the vineyards destroyed by phylloxera. And that was just needed for the financially damaged and large families, of that time, because it gives income through time and requires much labor, that exists at the large families.
In the year 1899 the tobacco growing was more than 2 km2, with production of tobacco 256 metric ton.
During the postwar period, the crop of tobacco was declining, mainly the massive immigration, the price decline and other reasons, resulted in the disappearance from the island in the mid-1970s, had stay longer in history.
Onions (Allium cepa)
There was a local variety of onion, which was considered from the very good, but the seed import from other regions, lost variety, although there is probably still in Koumeika village, which some still engaged in the production of dried onions.
Onions, against the hegemonic period was exported to Egypt and Turkey, later, after the union with Greece (1912) were sent to the Piraeus, Syros and other islands.
The reducing of the cultivation began from the early postwar years, from the mid 1950s the production fell and cover only local needs. Cause the big production cost of Samiotis farmer.
The rearing the silkworm (Bombyx mori), became at all Samos villages, giving a substantial income to farmers. The production of silk, was About 11 tonnes. The best silk is was considered from villages Pirgos and Pagondas.
The production of silkworm, require abundant mulberry trees (Morus alba), but at the beginning of the 20th century, possibly a bacterium destroyed the mulberry trees and so disappeared the silk production.
Cotton (Cossypium hirsutum)
with production of 2.6 tonnes
Anise (Pimpinella Anisum)
with production of 13 tonnes.top